Online Resources



Green and Sustainable Remediation: State of the Science and Practice

ITRC Guidance Document to help educate and inform state regulators and other stakeholders in the concepts and challenges of GSR (May 2011).

Clu-In Green Remediation

Contaminated Site Cleanup Information

EPA Green Remediation Primer

Green Remediation: Incorporating Sustainable Environmental Practices into Remediation of Contaminated Sites

Superfund and Green Remediation

Green remediation information as it relates to the Superfund statutory and regulatory framework

DTSC Green Remediation Initiative

Cal/EPA Department of Toxic Substances Control

ITRC Green and Sustainable Remediation

Interstate Technology and Regulatory Council

Sustainable Remediation of Contaminated Sites

Krishna Reddy and Jeffrey Adams, 2015

NAVFAC Green and Sustainable Remediation

Naval Facilities Engineering Command Web Portal

Green Remediation at Federal Facility Cleanups

ASTSWMO summary of current policies and strategies implemented by federal agencies that may impact federal facilities cleanups, and compiles definitions, policies, guidance, and implementation strategies from various agencies (January 2011).

FRTR Publications

Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable publications (and publications of FRTR member agencies)

SUBR:IM and CL:AIRE Bulletins

Documents summarizing the key research, guidance, and practices of SUBR:IM and CL:AIRE

Applying Sustainable Development Principles to Contaminated Land Management

Applying Sustainable Development Principles using the SuRF-UK Framework, Bardos et al., published in Remediation Journal, Spring 2011

Proceedings of the GreenRemediation Conference

GreenRemediation: Incorporating Sustainable Approaches in Site Remediation - International Conference, Copenhagen, Denmark, November 9-10, 2009

The Evaluation of Land Remediation Methods

2002 paper by R.M. Mansfield and J.A.J. Moohan in Land Contamination and Reclamation

EPA OSWER Discussion Forum



EPA National Center for Environmental Economics

NCEE Publications, Research, and Reports

Assessment of Approaches to Updating the Social Cost of Carbon

National Academies Press, January 2016

The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity

2009 report sponsored by the United Nations Environment Program

Developing a Program for Contaminated Site Management in Low and Middle Income Countries

Walter W. Kovalick, Jr. and Robert H. Montgomery, World Bank Group, Washington, DC, 2014

Financing Mechanisms for Addressing Remediation of Site Contamination

World Bank Group, Washington, DC, 2014

Decision Analysis for a Sustainable Environment, Economy & Society

EPA Science Brief (fact sheet) describing the EPA's effort to grow DASEES to aid in making decisions on complex environmental issues

Valuation of Ecological Resources: Integration of Ecology and Socioeconomics in Environmental Decision Making

Ralph G. Stahl, Jr., DuPont, Wilmington, DE; Lawrence A. Kapustka, Golder Associates Ltd., Calgary, Alberta; Wayne R. Munns, Jr., EPA, Randall J. F. Bruins, EPA

Economic analysis for ecosystem assessments: Application for the UK National Ecosystem Assessment (NEA)

October 2009 paper by Ian Bateman, Centre for Social and Economic Research on the Global Environment (CSERGE)

The Economics of Groundwater Remediation and Protection

Paul E. Hardisty, Worley-Parsons Komex, Perth, WA, Australia; Ece Ozdemiroglu, Economics for the Environment Consultancy, London, UK

Incorporation of an Ecosystem Services Assessment into the Remediation of Contaminated Sites

Prepared for EPA by Sarah Slack, National Network for Environmental Management Studies Fellow, University of Connecticut

InVEST: Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs

Natural Capital Project's family of tools to map and value ecosystem goods and services

Ecosystem Services Decision Support: A Living Database of Existing Tools, Approaches and Techniques for Supporting Decisions Related to Ecosystem Services

EPA Science Brief (fact sheet) describing tools available to quantify ecosystem services

Expect the Unexpected: Building business value in a changing world

2012 KPMG report on ten sustainability megaforces that will impact businesses over the next 20 years

Research on Climate Change Impacts and Associated Economic Damages

Improving the Assessment and Valuation of Climate Change Impacts for Policy and Regulatory Analysis, Draft Report, March 2011

Modeling and Research on Climate Change Impacts and Associated Economic Damages

Improving the Assessment and Valuation of Climate Change Impacts for Policy and Regulatory Analysis, Executive Summary, June 2011

Environmental Economics - Theory and Policy

Text book, published by Cambridge University Press, November 2011

Introduction to Environmental Externality Costs

Jonathan Koomey and Florentin Krause, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, published in the CRC Handbook on Energy Efficiency in 1997

Environmental and Material Flow Cost Accounting

Christine M. Jasch, Eco-Efficiency in Industry and Science, Vol. 25, Springer

EPA Environmental Justice Program, Tools, and Guidance

Measuring the Social Benefits of EPA Land Cleanup and Reuse Programs

September 2006 report prepared by the EPA National Center for Environmental Economics

Strategies for Addressing Cumulative Impacts in Environmental Justice Communities

March 2009 report prepared by the Environmental Justice Advisory Council for the NJDEP

Environmental Social Sciences - Methods and Research Design

Cambridge University Press, November 2010

The Great Transition: Navigating Social, Economic, Ecological Change in Turbulent Times

October 2009 paper by the BC-Alberta Social Economy Research Alliance examines the theoretical transition from a globalised growth economy to a federation of decentralised, social, and ecological economies

The Evidence Base for Environmental and Socioeconomic Impacts of “Sustainable” Certification

March 2010 paper by Allen Blackman and Jorge Rivera, Resources for the Future

Talking About Pictures: A Case for Photo Elicitation

Doug Harper, Duquesne University, published in Visual Studies, Vol. 17, No. 1, 2002

Guide to Sustainable Community Indicators

Sustainable Measures, Maureen Hart

Communicating Understanding of Contaminated Land Risks

May 2010 guidance designed to assist those communicating with the public and other stakeholders about land contamination risks, published by Scotland and Northern Ireland Forum for Environmental Research (SNIFFER)


Green and Sustainable Remediation: A Practical Framework

ITRC Technical/Regulatory Guidance document to assist the remediation industry with the integration of green and sustainable practices into existing site investigation and remediation programs (November 2011).

ASTM Standard Guide for Integrating Sustainable Objectives into Cleanup

Scalable framework for addressing sustainable aspects throughout any or all phases of site cleanup or any size of site (2013).

ASTM Standard Guide for Greener Cleanups

Framework for evaluating, implementing, documenting, and reporting activities to reduce the environmental footprint of a cleanup as defined by five core elements (2013).

USACE GSR Framework

US Army Corps of Engineers Decision Framework for Incorporation of Green and Sustainable Practices into Environmental Remediation Projects.

Evaluation of Consideration and Incorporation of GSR Practices in Army Environmental Remediation

US Army Corps of Engineers study report on the process of considering, incorporating, documenting, and evaluating the benefits of GSR practices (August 2012).

NAVFAC Sustainable Environmental Remediation

Fact Sheet from the Naval Facilities Engineering Command.

Navy Guidance on GSR (User’s Guide UG-2093-ENV Rev.1 )

Guidance for Navy remedial project managers and consultants for incorporating GSR considerations into current remediation (April 2012).

SURF Australia Sustainable Remediation Framework

A Framework for Assessing the Sustainability of Soil and Groundwater Remediation.

SuRF-UK Sustainable Remediation Framework

A framework for assessing the sustainability of soil and groundwater remediation.

Interim Advisory for Green Remediation

Cal/EPA DTSC advisory on green remediation, including green remediation evaluation matrix (GREM).

Minnesota Pollution Control Agency Toolkit for Greener Practices

Green & Sustainable Remediation Manual

A practical guide to sustainable remediation in the state of Wisconsin.

Green Response and Remedial Action Contracting and Administrative Toolkit

EPA guidelines, July 2009.

Methodology for Understanding and Reducing a Project’s Environmental Footprint

EPA’s introduction to reducing negative environmental effects that might occur during site assessment, remediation, or non-time critical removal actions (February 2012).

Sustainability Concepts in Decision-Making: Tools and Approaches for the US EPA

National Research Council Committee on Scientific Tools and Approaches for Sustainability (National Academies Press, 2014).

Groundwater Remedy Completion Strategy

EPA Guidance, May 2014

Green Remediation BMPs: Site Investigation

Green Remediation BMPs: Bioremediation

Green Remediation BMPs: Pump and Treat Technologies

Green Remediation BMPs: SVE and Air Sparging

Green Remediation BMPs: Excavation and Surface Restoration

Green Remediation BMPs: Clean Fuel & Emission Technologies for Site Cleanup

Green Remediation BMPs: Integrating Renewable Energy into Site Cleanup

Green Remediation BMPs: Sites with Leaking Underground Storage Tank Systems

Framework for Sustainable Land Remediation and Management

2007 EURODEMO+ report

The Incorporation of an Ecosystem Services Assessment into the Remediation of Contaminated Sites

Prepared for EPA by Sarah Slack, National Network for Environmental Management Studies Fellow, University of Connecticut

Planning and Promoting Ecological Land Reuse of Remediated Sites

ITRC Guidance, July 2006



Climate Science Special Report

USGCRP, 2017: Fourth National Climate Assessment (NCA4), Volume I, [Wuebbles, D.J., D.W. Fahey, K.A. Hibbard, D.J. Dokken, B.C. Stewart, and T.K. Maycock (eds.)]. U.S. Global Change Research Program, Washington, DC, USA

Climate Change Indicators in the United States

US EPA, 2016 (Fourth Edition, EPA 430-R-16-004)

Climate Change Adaptation Plan

US EPA, June 2014

Sustainability and the US EPA

2011 report by the National Research Council

Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability (Final Draft)

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Working Group II Contribution to the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report

Sustainability for the Nation: Resource Connection and Governance Linkages

2013 report prepared by the Committee on Sustainability Linkages in the Federal Government, Science and Technology for Sustainability Program, Policy and Global Affairs, and the National Research Council; published by the National Academies Press

Readings in Sustainability Science and Technology

Robert W. Kates, Editor, Harvard Center for International Development Working Paper No. 213, December 2010

Climate Protection Partnerships 2012 Annual Report

EPA Office of Atmospheric Programs, January 2014

Public Health Linkages with Sustainability

2013 Workshop Summary, published by the National Academies Press

Sustainability Considerations for Procurement Tools and Capabilities

2012 Workshop Summary, published by the National Academies Press

Road Map to a Resource Efficient Europe

September 2011 report published by the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee, and the Committee of the Regions

The Economics of 350: The Benefits and Costs of Climate Stabilization

October 2009 study published by the Economics for Equity and the Environment network

Indicators of Climate Change in California

April 2009 report by Cal-EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment

Understanding and Responding to Climate Change

2008 highlights of National Academies reports

Effects of Climate Change on Agriculture, Land Resources, Water Resources, and Biodiversity in the US

2008 report by the US Climate Change Science Program, USDA

Planning for a Sustainable Future: A Federal Sustainable Development Strategy for Canada

2008 Environment Canada report documenting goals, targets, and implementation strategies to achieve environmental sustainability

Expect the Unexpected: Building business value in a changing world

2012 KPMG report on ten sustainability megaforces that will impact businesses over the next 20 years

Measuring Sustainability: Canadian Environmental Sustainability Indicators

Environmental indicators that track the long-term trends for issues of key concern to Canadians

Reducing Abrupt Climate Change Risk Using the Montreal Protocol and Other Regulatory Actions to Complement Cuts in CO2 Emissions

October 2009 paper by Mario Molinaa, Durwood Zaelkeb, K. Madhava Sarmac, Stephen O. Andersend, Veerabhadran Ramanathane, and Donald Kaniaruf

2009 Synthesis Report

Synthesis report based on the discussions at and outcomes of the IARU International Scientific Congress Climate Change: Global Risks, Challenges & Decisions

2007 Synthesis Report

Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

2005 Environmental Sustainability Index

Benchmarking National Environmental Stewardship, Yale University Center for Environmental Law and Policy and Columbia University Center for International Earth Science Information Network

2012 Federal Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Reporting Guidance

Requirements for Federal agencies in calculating and reporting GHG emissions associated with agency operations

Stabilization Wedges

Introduction to the concept of wedges, from the Carbon Mitigation Initiative (a joint project of Princeton University, BP, and Ford)

GHG Reporting Protocol

General greenhouse gas reporting protocol from the Climate Registry


SiteWise™ GSR Tool

Quantitative tool jointly developed by Battelle, US Navy, and USACE

Quantifying Life Cycle Environmental Footprints of Soil and Groundwater Remedies

Demonstration of GSR spreadsheet tools SiteWise and SRT, benchmarked against SimaPro LCA software (Harre et al., July 2013)

Illinois Greener Cleanups Matrix

Matrix for selecting sustainable practices for site assessment, planning and design, and cleanup

EPA Spreadsheets for Environmental Footprint Analysis (SEFA)

Use of the methodology can provide quantitative information about the footprint reductions gained by applying EPA’s green remediation best management practices (BMPs).

Preliminary Screening Method to Estimate Cumulative Environmental Impacts

NJDEP Environmental Justice Advisory Council guidance document (December 2009).

Leaking UST Footprint Calculator

This calculator estimates and compares the greenhouse gas emissions for the five most common remediation technologies used at contaminated underground storage tank sites in California.

Diesel Emissions Quantifier

EPA's interactive tool to help evaluate clean diesel projects by estimating emission reductions, cost effectiveness, and health benefits

EPA Power Profiler

This downloadable tool calculates kW-hr of electricity used (determined by your power grid region), compares the fuel mix and air emissions rates of the electricity in your region, and determines the air emissions impacts of your electricity use.

Recycled Content Tool

Calculates the tons of material reduced through purchase or use of items with recycled content.

Waste Reduction Model

WARM calculates and totals GHG emissions of baseline and alternative waste management practices—source reduction, recycling, combustion, composting, and landfilling.

Landfill Gas Energy Benefits Calculator

EPA tool to determine the direct, avoided, and total greenhouse gas reductions, as well as environmental and energy benefits from methane capture.

Generic Mapping Tools

Open source collection of ~65 tools for manipulating geographic and Cartesian data sets and producing EPS illustrations (Paul Wessel, University of Hawaii at Manoa, and Walter Smith, NOAA).

National Stormwater Calculator

Desktop application that estimates the annual amount of rainwater and frequency of runoff from a specific site anywhere in the US.

Environmental Information Exchange Network

Environmental data network managed and administered by representatives from States, Tribes, Territories, and EPA.



Framework for Responsible Environmental Decision-Making Using LCA

2000 report prepared by the EPA Office of Research and Development

Life-Cycle Case Study Comparison of Permeable Reactive Barrier versus Pump-and-Treat Remediation

November 2009 Environmental Science and Technology article by Monica R. Higgins and Terese M. Olson

Life Cycle Assessment of Active and Passive Groundwater Remediation Technologies

February 2006 Journal of Contaminant Hydrology article by Peter Bayer and Michael Finkel

Small Scale In-Situ Bioremediation of Diesel Contaminated Soil – Screening LCA of Environmental Performance

November 2010 article by Joseph Akambih Tajam et al. in International Conference on Natural Sciences and Technologies for Waste and Wastewater Treatment, Remediation, Emissions Related to Climate, Environmental and Economic Effects

Guidelines for Social Life-Cycle Assessment of Products

Framework and best-practices for assessing the social and socio-economic impacts of product life cycles

The Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and Other Environmental Impacts

2003 Journal of Industrial Ecology article describing the EPA's TRACI computer program for LCA

Developing a Consistent Decision-Making Framework by Using the US EPA's TRACI

2002 AICHE paper by Jane C. Bare

Building for Environmental and Economic Sustainability (BEES) software tool

Developed by NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology), BEES measures the environmental performance of building products by using LCA approach specified in ISO 14040

European Commission, Joint Research Centre - Life Cycle Thinking

Information hub on life-cycle thinking-based data, tools, and services

Life Cycle Assessment Tools to Measure Environmental Impacts: Assessing Their Applicability to the Home Building Industry

2001 HUD-commissed report prepared by NAHB Research Center presenting a critique of and recommendations for LCAs

Mastering carbon management: Balancing trade-offs to optimize supply chain efficiencies

2008 IBM report discusses optimizing products, processes, information, and cash flow with respect to four main factors: cost, service, quality, and carbon emissions